What Are the Long-Term Athletic Development Models for Child Hockey Players?

The world of sports has seen a shift in focus towards the long-term athletic development (LTAD) of young athletes. This approach considers the entire journey of an athlete, with particular emphasis on the developmental years. As a sport that requires a wide range of physical and mental skills, hockey holds a significant place within this discussion. Engaging children in hockey from a young age presents opportunities to develop these skills and creates a foundation for a lifetime of physical activity and performance in sports if desired. This article seeks to offer an in-depth look at the long-term athletic development models that guide the training and development of child hockey players.

The Basics of Long-Term Athletic Development (LTAD)

The concept of LTAD emerged as a counter to the traditional focus on early specialization of athletes. It underscores the fact that elite performance in sport is a result of a combination of factors including the athlete’s age, physical maturity, and years of training.

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The LTAD model is developed around the different stages of growth and maturity. It takes into consideration the participants’ ages and their physical maturity levels, allowing for a more structured and effective approach to their training. This model aims to ensure the development of a well-rounded athlete who can more easily adapt to various sports and physical activities.

In the context of hockey, LTAD models are used to guide the development of players from their early years through to adulthood. The focus is not just on developing exceptional hockey players, but on fostering a love for the sport and a lifestyle of physical activity.

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Training in the Early Stages

The early stages of LTAD for a child hockey player are centered around developing fundamental movement skills and a basic understanding of the sport. Emphasis is placed on creating a fun and safe environment for the children to explore the sport of hockey, often between the ages of 6 and 9.

At this stage, it’s not about drilling the kids with rigid hockey routines, but rather about instilling in them a love for the sport and physical activity in general. The training is typically made fun and game-based, with a focus on building basic skills like skating, puck control, and passing. It’s also crucial during this stage to encourage participation and ensure every child is given equal opportunity to participate and learn.

Growth and Development

During the growth and development stage, typically between the ages 10 and 13, athletes begin to acquire more specialized hockey skills. They are introduced to more complex training drills and are taught about the importance of physical fitness and its role in the sport.

At this stage, athletes start to train more frequently, which will not only enhance their skills but also prepare their bodies for the physical demands of the sport in the long term. Nevertheless, it’s important to keep in mind that overtraining can lead to injuries and burnout, so training should be carefully managed and monitored.

Advancing to Elite Performance

Once the fundamental skills have been mastered, the focus of training shifts to performance enhancement. This stage is usually in the ages of 14 to 16, where the athletes are physically mature and have accumulated several years of training.

Here, the training becomes more intense and specific, with a focus on developing the skills and tactics needed to excel in the game. Athletes at this stage start to specialize in specific positions and work on the nuances that come with each of those positions. Strength and conditioning also become a more significant part of their training, as it contributes to their overall performance and helps prevent injuries.

Maintaining Athleticism and Activity

As athletes mature and reach their peak performance levels, the training evolves to maintain their athleticism and ensure continual improvement. This stage, often referred to as the ‘Maintenance’ or ‘Mastery’ stage, is where athletes perfect their skills and develop their unique style of play.

Here, the emphasis is on optimizing performance, recovering effectively, and remaining injury-free. Training is highly individualized, with a focus on the athlete’s specific needs and areas for improvement. It’s also at this stage that athletes may decide to pursue hockey at a professional level or continue participating at a recreational level.

In conclusion, the LTAD model provides a comprehensive framework for the development of child hockey players. It promotes a balanced and gradual approach to training, ensuring that young athletes grow to love the sport, develop their skills effectively, and maintain a healthy and active lifestyle in the long term.

Deliberate Practice and Skill Acquisition

As budding athletes progress through the LTAD model, a key component of training is the incorporation of deliberate practice. This concept involves the repetition of specific skills or techniques with the aim of improvement. This stage typically begins around the age of 14 and carries on through adolescence and into early adulthood.

In the context of hockey, this could mean focusing on improving a player’s shooting accuracy, enhancing their puck control during high-speed maneuvers, or fine-tuning their defensive positioning. Deliberate practice allows players to gain a deeper understanding of the sport and the intricacies of playing at a high level. This form of specialized training, combined with a solid foundation of fundamental movement skills, forms the backbone of elite performance within the sport.

The deliberate practice stage of the LTAD model is not solely about skill acquisition, but also about fostering a love for the sport. By allowing athletes to see noticeable improvements in their abilities, it can boost their self-confidence and motivation to continue playing and improving.

Strength and conditioning also have a significant role during this stage. As young athletes grow and develop, their bodies need to be conditioned to handle the physical demands of hockey. Training programs at this stage should focus on enhancing players’ strength, power, speed, agility, and endurance. This will not only improve their game performance but also reduce the risk of injuries.

The Role of Motor Skills Development

Motor skills development plays a crucial role in the LTAD model. These skills, which include balance, agility, and coordination, are fundamental to performance in any sport, including hockey. They are typically developed during the early stages of an athlete’s life, typically between 6 and 9 years of age, and are continually honed throughout their athletic career.

In the context of hockey, motor skills development could involve drills to improve skating agility, exercises to enhance hand-eye coordination for better puck control, or activities to increase balance for more stability on the ice. Improving these skills can lead to better performance in the game and a reduced risk of injuries.

Developing these skills is not just important for hockey players, but also contributes to overall physical literacy. Physical literacy refers to the confidence, competence, and motivation to engage in a wide range of physical activities. By developing motor skills, young athletes are not only becoming better hockey players, but they’re also becoming more physically literate individuals. This will benefit them in the long term, whether they choose to pursue hockey professionally or simply maintain an active lifestyle.


The long-term athletic development model offers a comprehensive roadmap for the development of child hockey players. It focuses on a balanced training approach, starting with the basics of fundamental movement and motor skills, progressing through to the deliberate practice of sport-specific skills, and the inclusion of strength conditioning programs. By following this model, young athletes can develop into skilled hockey players, while also fostering a love for the sport and establishing a foundation for physical activity in the long term.

The LTAD model is not a one-size-fits-all approach, but rather a flexible guide that can be adapted to each athlete’s individual needs and developmental stages. It advocates for a gradual and balanced development, discouraging early specialization and promoting a well-rounded athletic upbringing. Whether the goal is to pursue hockey at a professional level or simply to enjoy the sport recreationally, the LTAD model can give young hockey players the best chance of achieving their individual athletic goals.